|A mandala offering to the New Year, 2021. Isaac Hale State Beach, the Big Island of Hawaii|
|A waterfall trickles over a lava cliff on the east side of Mt. Rainier, Washington|
|A lava assemblage wall at Peterson's Rock Garden, near Redmond|
|My Grandparent's Elmer and Edith in front of a lava rock fireplace he built in their garden in Bend|
|The Great Spring, from which the fabled McKenzie River emerges.|
|Clear Lake was formed when a lava flow blocked the McKenzie River, about 3,000 years ago. It is 120 feet deep.|
|Paulina and East Lakes, separated by a cinder cone and lava flows, inside the Newberry Caldera. Paulina Peak and the Obsidian flow are at the top of the photo.|
"Obsidian is produced when felsic lava extruded from a volcano cools rapidly with minimal crystal growth. It is commonly found within the margins of rhyolitic lava flows known as obsidian flows. These flows have a high content of silica, which gives them a high viscosity. The high viscosity inhibits atomic diffusion through the lava, which inhibits nucleation of mineral crystals. Together with rapid cooling, this results in a natural glass forming from the lava. Obsidian is hard, brittle, and amorphous; it therefore fractures with sharp edges. In the past, it was used to manufacture cutting and piercing tools, and it has been used experimentally as surgical scalpel blades."
|Crack in the Ground is a mile long gap formed when the ground collapsed during an eruption of craters connected to the super volcano Mt. Newberry|
|Crater Lake, with Wizard Island|
|A postcard showing the eruption of Mt. Saint Helens from Portland in March 1980|
|A bridge encrusted with black obsidian at Peterson's Rock Garden|
The wave-cut terraces on the south side of the ring mark former lake levels of this now-dry lakebed. Southerly winds, which are still predominant in this region, apparently drove waves against the south side of the ring, eroding the soft ash layers, breaching it, and creating a large opening on the south side."
|A painting of the Headwaters of the Metolius River and Mt. Jefferson by my Grandmother Edith Hudson for my Mother in the 1960s|
|Columnar basalt forms a vertically striped band in contrast to a variety of lava flows in the Deschutes River canyon in Central Oregon|
One of my favorite rock quarries is outside of the town of Corbett in the Columbia River Gorge east of Portland. The tall vertical basalt columns are blasted from the slope and sold as columns or broken up in to blocks and slabs for building stone, or even crushed to make gravel.
|Basalt Columns in the Corbett Quarry|
|Arranging cut basalt pieces for the wall around a mosaic representing the Phases of the Moon|
|The finished seat height wall, a mixture of basalt and river stones|
|The 16,480 foot Tungurahua Volcano south of Quito, Ecuador is a dramatic sight when erupting.|
|The Caldera of Sierra Negra on the Island of Isabela in the Galapagos is classified as the second largest in the world, after the supervolcano that makes up the Yellowstone Basin in Wyoming.|
|Samosir Island in Lake Toba on the Island of Sumatra, Indonesia|
|The massive caldera filled with sea water on the Island of Santorini|
|The whitewashed towns of Oia on the left and Thira on the right looking like snow on the caldera rim|
|Oia flows along the slopes like lava might.|
|Mortared cinder walls of a church that was destroyed by an earthquake shows the mortared cinder and lava structure that would later be stuccoed.|
I had rented a small cave apartment for a week online, and by chance was moved to another unit, which turned out to be one of the most beautiful places I have ever stayed. Building by digging in to the ash, and using rough stones for walls and stucco makes for a splended curvaceous organic architecture that compliments the dramatic natural landscape. The walls in my cave were all soft curves. A steep set of stairs leads down the slopes to a blue domed church seen in countless photos taken from around my porch of one of the most famous images in Greece.
|The view from my porch is one of the most famous in Greece.|
|Fresco found during excavation of the ruins of Akrotiri|
|Mt. Vesuvius, which destroyed Pompeii and Herculaneum in 79 AD rises above the city of Napoli in Italy|
|This image of Mt. Etna was taken on January 17, 2021 from a news story.|
|The current eruption in Halema'uma'u Crater on the Big Island of Hawaii from the Kilauea overlook in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park|
|An incredible aerial view of the Halema'uma'u Crater.|
|Nurseryman Tom Pierigrossi made this concrete path to mimic Pāhoehoe lava, which is found in other parts of the garden.|
|Goddess Pele mural in the town of Pahoa|
|A'ā lava is distinctive for its rough jagged air bubble pocked surface. It is hard to walk on. This is the floor of Kilauea Iki Crater in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.|
|Fantastic flowing forms of Pahoehoe lava along the Chain of Craters Road, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park|
|Churning seas and tropical vegetation fringe the beautiful Pune coast|
|A map showing the 2018 lava flows in red.|
|The new rock beach and lava flow at Isaac Hale Beach Park at Pohoiki.|
|Pretending to use a now defunct beach shower at Isaac Hale Beach Park, the former beach now covered in a thick layer of lava.|
|This pool is where the boat ramp once allowed fishermen to launch their boats in to a bay, now hundreds of feet from the new shoreline.|
|Lava has been tumbled by the pounding surf in to beautiful rounded stones at Isaac Hale Beach Park|
|A curvaceous red cinder driveway snakes through a breathtaking collection of tropical plants in the garden of Davis Dalbok in Puna.|
|Hiking across the floor of the Kilauea Iki Crater|
|A crenalated wall at the edge of a crater on the Chain of Craters Road|
|An endangered Hawailan Nēnē Goose|
It was a wet day when I drove down to the sea on the road, which made for few tourists and everything was glossy wet. I kept pulling over and hiking out on to the flows in wonder of this hallucinogenic landscape. I was quite a distance from the car when a squall hit and instantly destroyed my umbrella. I was thoroughly soaked by the time I got back to the car. A hundred feet onward and I was pulled over again and wandering out in to another wonderland of lava.
The shapes and patterns and ropes and wrinkles are utterly surreal.
|The Pacific Ocean shines through a squall in the distance beyond the expanse of massive lava flows|
|A human figure, perhaps dancing|
A short distance further on the Chain of Craters road ends at the sea, which pounds relentlessly at the vast thich lava flows that once poured molten in to the sea. It is a very dramatic juxtaposition of water, stone, and air.
|An elephants eye|
|Humble abodes dot the Pahoehoe landscape at Kalapana Gardens|
|A casualty of molten lava|
|The shoreline along the Red Road leading from Kalapana to Pohoiki|
I did bring a number of stones back to the house I was staying in to make the gardens more beautiful. After all it is the main local building material. Everything here rests on a bed of lava. Roads are flanked by lava walls stacked with the stone that needed to cleared for the paths. Usually these are just piled, but I did see some creative constructions in my travels.
|Lava gate posts on the Red Road in PunaI|
|A dog checks out an arrangement I made for my friends Mathew Mercury, David Davenport, and Robert Welch, who tend an extraordinary garden next door to where I stayed.|
|Colorful Bromeliads can be planted directly on to lava rock. The garden of Robert Welch and David Davenport in Puna.|
|The ancient Pu'u'ō'ō Trail connecting Mauna Kea and Kilauea Crater|
|Kahena Beach on the Puna Coast|
|Pele's Hot Pool at Isaac Hale Beach Park, Pohoiki|
|A lava beach rock mosaic I built one afternoon to show its potential.|
|My last drive down the Red Road after a final soak in the hot pools.|
|Mahonia x Arthrur Menzies eruption in blooms in my garden in mid January|